Do you know how the cenotes were formed?

Do you know how the cenotes were formed?

The word cenotes or Xenotes comes from the Maya dzonot which means cavern of water. For the Mayans, these places were sacred because they were their only sources of fresh water in the middle of the jungle. In the Yucatan peninsula, it is presumed that there are more than 15,000 open and closed cenotes.

One of the most striking is that the appearance of the cenotes is similar to that of a lake or well, but its waters behave, in reality, like those of a river, by the continuous flow of them through the tunnels. This keeps alive the flora and fauna present in its waters, and also helps to maintain the populations of some species completely endemic. However, its formation was not an event that happened at random from one day to the next, but it has a complex and interesting history trapped between its walls.

Many years ago, the entire area that lies towards the southeast of Mexico was only a coral reef covered by the waters of the sea; then, the sea levels dropped, which caused that this barrier was exposed, to later die and become, finally, in a dense tropical forest.

It is in this environment when rain begins to fall, after the last ice age occurred, and this rain was mixed with the large amounts of carbon dioxide that was in the atmosphere during that time.

This mixture gave rise to carbonic acid, which was further acidified by contact with the soil where it fell. This had high levels of decomposing organic matter that produced more carbonic acid, so the aggressiveness of the water was really remarkable. Then, the mixture of salt water with fresh water further increases the aggressiveness of the water on the limestone (mainly), which dissolves it gradually and creating holes in it.

Over the years, these holes expanded their dimensions, generating, simultaneously, tunnels and passages, which created underground water systems very similar to the rivers found on the surface of the earth. Then, with fluctuations in sea levels, some caves became totally empty, which caused the existing roofs to collapse completely, giving rise to open cenotes.

When raising and lowering the sea levels, various materials accumulated after collapses and dissolutions by carbonic acid, were giving rise, in the cenotes, to various natural constructions, such as stalactites, columns and stalagmites.

Marvelous Uxmal

Known as “The Three Times Built”, it is one of the archaeological sites of the Mayan culture whose architecture is one of the most impressive in Yucatan. Its beauty is characterized by having low and horizontal palaces, placed around courtyards or quadrangles, which are rich in decorations of very detailed sculptures made with thousands of small stones perfectly polished and adjusted forming geometric mosaics of a perfection not equal in the whole area Maya.

The city consists of 15 groups of buildings, distributed from north to south, in an area of approximately two kilometers. Among those that stand out: The Pyramid of the Adivino, with its Plaza de los Pájaros, the Quadrangle of the Nuns, the Ball Game, the Governor’s Palace, the Great Pyramid and El Palomar, in addition to the North Group, the House of the Old , The Cemetery and the Temple of the Phalluses. Uxmal, a city with a certain subtle air, that just by contemplating it, can move its visitors.

The most impressive structure, with a unique elliptical shape and a height of more than 35 meters is La Casa del Adivino; According to an ancient legend, this pyramid was raised by a dwarf in only one night, although in reality it was built in five stages and was designed in such a way that its stairway faces east, towards sunset on the solstice Of summer.

From the Quadrangle of the Nuns there is a light and sound show by Uxmal, in which Mayan legends of the region who gave life to this mystic place are narrated.

Mayan Museum “Cancún”

The Mayan Museum of Cancun opened its doors in November 2012; It presents historical relics and extensive exhibition spaces, in a modern environment. The multimillion dollar project is the culmination of 30 years of collection and has 350 Mayan pieces. For those interested in learning more about the traditional culture of the area, or in search of an activity a rainy day, the Mayan Museum of Cancun is a fascinating place to spend a few hours.

The museum consists of three exhibition spaces that cover a total of 409 square meters (4,400 square feet) where relics are shown, and even replicas of bones dating back 14,000 years.

The first room of the Museum:
It is dedicated to the archeology of Quintana Roo. Its chronological journey begins with the oldest burials that have been found in submerged caves of the Quintana Roo coast, passing through the history of the monumental sites of the south of the State, until the boom of the northern region of the entity or East Coast prior to arrival of the Spanish conquerors.
The pieces reflect the origin, development and change strategies of different cities; the funeral rites, architectural elements, ritual and domestic objects used by the Maya of Quintana Roo throughout two thousand years of history.

The second room:
It abounds on general aspects of the Mayan civilization: its relationship with the environment; the origin, development and decline of their cities; its economic activities, from agriculture to commerce; the characteristics of the ruling elites and the wars between them; its most important cultural expressions such as writing and the calendar and some of its rites such as the ball game.
The pieces exhibited here come from excavations carried out in Quintana Roo, as well as in the rest of the Mexican states that cover the Mayan area: Tabasco, Yucatán, Campeche and Chiapas. A portion of these works have been granted on loan by the Comalcalco Site Museum, the Yucatan Regional Museum “Canton Palace”, the Chichén Itzá Site Museum, the Chiapas Regional Museum and the Palenque Site Museum “Alberto Ruz L’huillier.

The third and last room:
It is dedicated to the presentation of temporary exhibitions linked to the theme and vocation of the Museum.
The visit to the Museum also includes access to the San Miguelito Archaeological Zone; Through a path that starts from the lower corridor of the Museum, this site is made up of at least four groups consisting mainly of structures that supported wooden houses and palm houses, in which possibly diverse families lived during the last years prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquerors.

Throughout history

A day like today, but throughout history there were many events that you might like to know:

April 4, 1920: Arab nationalists attack the Jewish population in Jerusalem, initiating a series of violent disturbances that mark the beginning of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

April 4, 1926: after crossing the South Atlantic, the Spanish crew of the Plus Ultra hydroplane return triumphantly.

April 4, 1949: in Washington, twelve countries sign the North Atlantic Treaty, thus creating NATO.

April 4, 1958: in London, a demonstration of 10,000 people against the atomic bomb creates the pacifist movement.

April 4, 1959: the Sudanese Republic and Senegal form the Federation of Mali.

April, 1961: in Cuba the OPJM (Organization of Pioneers José Martí) is founded.

April 4, 1962: in Cuba is based the UJC (Union of Young Communists).

April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King Jr. is killed by a sniper in Memphis, Tennessee.

April 4, 1969: at the San Lucas Clinic in Houston (Texas), the first implant of an artificial heart is performed.

April 4, 1973: The World Trade Center opens in New York, United States.

April 4, 1975: in California (USA) Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded the Microsoft software company.

April 4, 1981: in Dublin the group Bucks Fizz wins for the United Kingdom the XXVI Edition of Eurovisión with the song Making your mind up.

April 4, 1997: 21 countries of the Council of Europe sign the agreement on Human Rights and Biomedicine, which includes the prohibition of cloning human beings.

Cobá

Cobá is an archaeological site located east of the town of Cobá, east of Chichen Itzá and northeast of Tulum.

Some hieroglyphic inscriptions found on stelae and panels on the site allow us to affirm that Cobá was the original name of the city. One of the possible meanings and the most accepted one, given its proximity to the lagoons, is that of “chopped water”.

Several groups of structures are scattered in Cobá and many more are planned to dig (only 5% of their structures have been unearthed). The highest pyramid is called Nohoch Mul, 43 meters high. Once you are at the top, there is also the possibility of observing the jungle landscape with amazing shades of green, trees, butterflies, birds and insects.

The largest structure of Cobá and that you can still climb has 111 steps, plus another 5 to the highest area of the pyramid from where many people take pictures and admire the beauty that the jungle encloses.

After having toured the archaeological zone you can cool off in the cenotes that are to its surroundings as the cenote Choo-Ha which is located 10 km from Coba, inside are stalactites. The Cenote Tankach-Ha of deeper waters of the place and the Cenote Multun-Ha where you will be able to observe stones under the platform well-heeled giving the impression of being Mayan ruins.

The Cheese along the history

It is said that the creation of the cheese was made accidentally by a shepherd, who had to ferment the milk, it was coagulated and out of necessity or out of curiosity, with the help of a little salt and natural weather agents began to experiment, until you get to create the first cheese.

It is considered the appearance of cheese as food in our diet, as the oldest there is. It is even believed, that livestock appeared before any type of crop.

The elaboration of the cheese surely was discovered by diverse communities at the same time. The sheep were domesticated 12,000 years ago and in ancient Egypt cows were taken care of and milked for milk so it is logical to think that they would also make cheeses. The milk was kept in containers made of leather, porous ceramics or wood, but since it was difficult to keep them clean, the milk fermented quickly. The next step was to extract the whey from the curd to make some kind of fresh cheese, without curdling, with strong and acidic flavor. Legend has it that an Arab shepherd returned to his dwelling with the milk of the sheep inside a bag made with the casings of one of his lambs and that after walking in full sun, when opening the bag the milk was curdled, solid, made cheese. According to Greek mythology, it was the Gods of Olympus who taught humans how to make cheese, and these made observations as to see that the milk after a certain time was congealing, the influence of temperatures in this process milk curdled faster and if when the milk curdled solidified and the liquid was poured, the curd became more consistent and in this state could be conserved more time.